ethical issues in conducting research

Universities rely on review boards to decide which research activities to approve. Internet Explorer is no longer a supported browser. The agreement could define allowable uses of the data, publication plans, authorship, etc. The error does not affect the overall results of his research, but it is potentially misleading. Researchers Must Maintain Participant Confidentiality. The conduct of research with human participants that focuses on religion or spirituality raises significant ethical issues. Fouka, G., & Mantzorou, M. (2011). HHS This guidance is mainly directed to What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? For example, a "medical ethicist" is someone who studies ethical standards in medicine. Principle 3. Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and governmental policies. Abstract. USA.gov. 2018 Jul 5;20(7):e237. Overlay technical jargon 2. failure to round numbers properly 3. The research protocol for a study of a drug on hypertension requires the administration of the drug at different doses to 50 laboratory mice, with chemical and behavioral tests to determine toxic effects. Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military secrets, and patient records. In: Designing and Conducting Research in Education . Abstract. He therefore decides to extrapolate from the 45 completed results to produce the 5 additional results. Maintain and improve your own professional competence and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take steps to promote competence in science as a whole. It seems that there are good arguments on both sides of this issue and Dr. Wexford needs to take some time to think about what she should do. She has just published a paper on the relationship between pesticide exposure and PD in a prestigious journal. Ethics should be applied on all stages of research, such as planning, conducting and evaluating a research project. Laws relating to intellectual property may be relevant. Yakov, G., Shilo, Y., & Shor, T. (2010). These situations create difficult decisions for research known as ethical or moral dilemmas. 2020 Sep 4;99(36):e21653. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects. For example, many ethical norms in research, such as guidelines for authorship, copyright and patenting policies, data sharing policies, and confidentiality rules in peer review, are designed to protect intellectual property interests while encouraging collaboration. For the best experience, please use a more recent browser such as the latest versions of Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, and/or Mozilla Firefox. Enlisted below are these ethical issues along with guidelines that should be adhered to for each. Gac Sanit. This can be quite a dilemma in some experiments. However, at some point he or she will have to make a decision and then take action. Peaceful civil disobedience is an ethical way of protesting laws or expressing political viewpoints. It is also expected that they will adhere to RCUK policy and guidelines on governance of good research conduct . Respect confidentiality and privacy. Voluntary Participation: Every participant in the research should voluntarily participate in it, and should not be forced to do so. When conducting research on human subjects, minimize harms and risks and maximize benefits; respect human dignity, privacy, and autonomy; take special precautions with vulnerable populations; and strive to distribute the benefits and burdens of research fairly. The guideline that informed consent must be obtained from potential research subjects is a special issue for vulnerable populations such as prisoners. If the director of a lab is named as an author on every paper that comes from his lab, even if he does not make a significant contribution, what could be wrong with that? Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly. Do not deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public. Experimental study of expression profile and specific role of human microRNAs in regulating atrophic bone nonunion. According to the "bad apple" theory, most scientists are highly ethical. Relevant original publications (The Declaration of Helsinki, Belmont Report, Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences/World Health Organisation International Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, World Association of Medical Editors Recommendations on Publication Ethics Policies, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, CoSE White Paper, International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use-Good Clinical Practice) form the literature that are relevant to the ethical and legal aspects of conducting research that researchers should abide by when conducting translational and clinical research. What is Ethics in Research & Why is it Important? See Shamoo and Resnik (2015), cited above. Research ethics provides guidelines for the responsible conduct of research. think about issues that arise when research involves human or animal subjects See Glossary of Commonly Used Terms in Research Ethics. We argue that the ethical standards should be updated to accommodate the new modes of data collection. doi: 10.5812/ijem.88155. [monograph on the Internet] Geneva: 1996. To know what to do, Dr. Wexford needs to have more information concerning such matters as university or funding agency or journal policies that may apply to this situation, the team's intellectual property interests, the possibility of negotiating some kind of agreement with the other team, whether the other team also has some information it is willing to share, the impact of the potential publications, etc. NIEHS has a goal to ensure job opportunities and career enhancements programs for both our work force and our community. Or perhaps a university administrator sees no ethical problem in taking a large gift with strings attached from a pharmaceutical company. The role of research ethics Ethical research issues: going beyond the Declaration of Helsinki. Use the search box to see research highlights from NIEHS scientists since its founding in 1966. Finally, many of the norms of research promote a variety of other important moral and social values, such as social responsibility, human rights, animal welfare, compliance with the law, and public health and safety. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. The following is a general summary of some ethical principles: Honesty: Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. When most people think of ethics (or morals), they think of rules for distinguishing between right and wrong, such as the Golden Rule ("Do unto others as you would have them do unto you"), a code of professional conduct like the Hippocratic Oath ("First of all, do no harm"), a religious creed like the Ten Commandments ("Thou Shalt not kill..."), or a wise aphorisms like the sayings of Confucius. This article seeks to briefly review the various international guidelines and regulations that exist on issues related to informed consent, confidentiality, providing incentives and various forms of research misconduct. For example, some unethical authorship practices probably reflect traditions and practices that have not been questioned seriously until recently. There are two main theories about why researchers commit misconduct. Ethical issues in pedigree research are complicated because there can be potential conflicts between the rights and responsibilities of an individual and of a group. You will learn about the definition of research ethics, the main issues of ethics in research and their examples. Finally, situations frequently arise in research in which different people disagree about the proper course of action and there is no broad consensus about what should be done. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. Disclose methods, materials, assumptions, analyses, and other information needed to evaluate your research. On the other hand, if she shares data with the other team, they may publish results that she was planning to publish, thus depriving her (and her team) of recognition and priority. A national survey, Publishing the same paper in two different journals without telling the editors, Submitting the same paper to different journals without telling the editors, Not informing a collaborator of your intent to file a patent in order to make sure that you are the sole inventor, Including a colleague as an author on a paper in return for a favor even though the colleague did not make a serious contribution to the paper, Discussing with your colleagues confidential data from a paper that you are reviewing for a journal, Using data, ideas, or methods you learn about while reviewing a grant or a papers without permission, Trimming outliers from a data set without discussing your reasons in paper, Using an inappropriate statistical technique in order to enhance the significance of your research, Bypassing the peer review process and announcing your results through a press conference without giving peers adequate information to review your work, Conducting a review of the literature that fails to acknowledge the contributions of other people in the field or relevant prior work, Stretching the truth on a grant application in order to convince reviewers that your project will make a significant contribution to the field, Stretching the truth on a job application or curriculum vita, Giving the same research project to two graduate students in order to see who can do it the fastest, Overworking, neglecting, or exploiting graduate or post-doctoral students, Failing to maintain research data for a reasonable period of time, Making derogatory comments and personal attacks in your review of author's submission, Promising a student a better grade for sexual favors, Making significant deviations from the research protocol approved by your institution's Animal Care and Use Committee or Institutional Review Board for Human Subjects Research without telling the committee or the board, Not reporting an adverse event in a human research experiment, Exposing students and staff to biological risks in violation of your institution's biosafety rules, Rigging an experiment so you know how it will turn out, Making unauthorized copies of data, papers, or computer programs, Owning over $10,000 in stock in a company that sponsors your research and not disclosing this financial interest, Deliberately overestimating the clinical significance of a new drug in order to obtain economic benefits. Health Science Journal, 5(1), 3–14. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. This guidance is mainly directed to Another option would be to offer to collaborate with the researchers. Prior to conducting qualitative research in online communities, researchers have an ethical obligation to identify and weigh possible risks and benefits to both the community and community members. Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors not related to scientific competence and integrity. -, World Medical Association. Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research where objectivity is expected or required. Qualitative researchers do not have clear standards governing their activities. These standards also help members of the discipline to coordinate their actions or activities and to establish the public's trust of the discipline. It is too early to tell. See how we put research Ethics to practice. Good clinical practice and the conduct of clinical studies in pediatric oncology. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication. While parental consent is usually required for children and young people under the age of 18 (f… Only researchers who are morally corrupt, economically desperate, or psychologically disturbed commit misconduct. She receives a request from another research team that wants access to her complete dataset. NIEHS offers a broad range of job opportunities, career enhancement programs, and research training grants and programs in environmental health sciences and administration. Upholding individuals' rights to confidentiality and privacy is a … The NIH and NSF have both mandated training in research ethics for students and trainees. When determining ethical guidelines for research, most experts agree that the cost of conducting the experiment must be weighed against the potential benefit to society the research may provide.While there is still a great deal of debate about ethical guidelines, there are some key components that should be followed when conducting … What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? the question of what is meant by the term ‘ethical research’, before considering ethical issues relating to different elements of the research process, including access, informing parents and children about the research, the involvement of children, parents and staff in research, and confidentiality. Failing to publish a correction would be unethical because it would violate norms relating to honesty and objectivity in research. Fourth, ethical norms in research also help to build public support for research. Will education in research ethics help reduce the rate of misconduct in science? Ethical norms also serve the aims or goals of research and apply to people who conduct scientific research or other scholarly or creative activities. Nursing research is held to the same ethical standards as all other research involving human participants. What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? Keep good records of research activities, such as data collection, research design, and correspondence with agencies or journals. Find out about the exciting discoveries being made by NIEHS and NIEHS-supported researchers that are helping to improve health and save lives. NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. Responsible Conduct of Research, 3rd ed. For instance, ethical standards govern conduct in medicine, law, engineering, and business. Ethical norms are so ubiquitous that one might be tempted to regard them as simple commonsense. NIEHS is committed to conducting the most rigorous research in environmental health sciences, and to communicating the results of this research to the public. doi: 10.2196/jmir.9791. For example, prohibitions against fabricating, falsifying, or misrepresenting research data promote the truth and minimize error. Do not conduct unnecessary or poorly designed animal experiments. Be open to criticism and new ideas. The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely. Health Science Journal, 5(1), 3–14. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. The main point is that human reasoning plays a pivotal role in ethical decision-making but there are limits to its ability to solve all ethical dilemmas in a finite amount of time. Although most societies use laws to enforce widely accepted moral standards and ethical and legal rules use similar concepts, ethics and law are not the same. Avoid or minimize bias or self-deception. It is important to remember, however, that misconduct occurs only when researchers intend to deceive: honest errors related to sloppiness, poor record keeping, miscalculations, bias, self-deception, and even negligence do not constitute misconduct. Indian J Pharm Sci. eCollection 2019 Jan. Gasparyan AY, Yessirkepov M, Voronov AA, Koroleva AM, Kitas GD. Updated Editorial Guidance for Quality and Reliability of Research Output. While an economist might examine the cost and benefits of various policies related to global warming, an environmental ethicist could examine the ethical values and principles at stake. The Principles of Biomedical Scientific Writing: Materials and Methods. NIEHS sponsors and co-sponsors scientific meetings, conferences, and events throughout the year. The conduct of research with human participants that focuses on religion or spirituality raises significant ethical issues. In this case, there may be other choices besides 'share' or 'don't share,' such as 'negotiate an agreement' or 'offer to collaborate with the researchers.'. Another way of defining 'ethics' focuses on the disciplines that study standards of conduct, such as philosophy, theology, law, psychology, or sociology. Confidentiality is an essential part of any … Which choice could stand up to further publicity and scrutiny? For instance, federal policies on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, the human subjects protections, and animal care and use are necessary in order to make sure that researchers who are funded by public money can be held accountable to the public. One may also define ethics as a method, procedure, or perspective for deciding how to act and for analyzing complex problems and issues. NLM Is there a conflict between the research ethics and the nature of nursing? For research or evaluation to be considered ethical, consent must be voluntary and must be based on a sufficient understanding of the research or evaluation and the implications of participating in it (National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC], 2007). J Korean Med Sci. However, given the huge list of potential offenses that might fall into the category "other serious deviations," and the practical problems with defining and policing these other deviations, it is understandable why government officials have chosen to limit their focus. 4. If you feel this way, relax. One plausible explanation of these disagreements is that all people recognize some common ethical norms but interpret, apply, and balance them in different ways in light of their own values and life experiences. Endorsing these methods in this context need not imply that ethical decisions are irrational, however. The researcher should take into account that none of the ethical and legal issues have been violated. INCENTIVES: Incentives to participate in a research project must be fair and must not unduly exceed … Researchers should note the major international guidelines and regional differences in legislation. These issues should be considered on every step of the research: be it the problem formulation stage; data collection phase; or the data analysis and interpretation phase of the research. Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. In this article, the author describes some of the ethical controversies that may arise in conducting research in human subjects, especially with respect to ownership of genes. This article describes a literature review conducted to determine the most important ethical issues that nurses encounter when undertaking or participating in research. People may fail to see different options due to a limited imagination, bias, ignorance, or fear. For example, two people could agree that murder is wrong but disagree about the morality of abortion because they have different understandings of what it means to be a human being. Most researchers, as well as many different policies and codes would say that Dr. T should tell the journal (and any coauthors) about the error and consider publishing a correction or errata. we live in today. According to Bryman and Bell (2007) the following ten points represent the most important principles related to ethical considerations in dissertations: The site is secure. It may be useful to seek advice from a colleague, a senior researcher, your department chair, an ethics or compliance officer, or anyone else you can trust. Psychology is a very sensitive field and ethical concerns are likely to arise when carrying out research and prescribing any method of treatment to an individual. Book. Also, research ethics demands that the me… 2019 Nov 29;13:2007-2015. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S206728. The following are some step that researchers, such as Dr. Wexford, can take to deal with ethical dilemmas in research: It is always important to get a clear statement of the problem. Keywords: These organizations agree that ethics is not an afterthought or side note to the research study. Ethical Issues in Conducting Online Research: 10.4018/978-1-60566-026-4.ch228: The rapid growth of the Internet has been accompanied by a growth in the number and types of virtual environments supporting computer-mediated communication. Dissertations may even be doomed to failure if this part is missing. Ethical lapses in research can significantly harm human and animal subjects, students, and the public. Alternative test methods are methods that replace, reduce, or refine animal use in research and testing, Learn more about Environmental science Basics. Download or play NIEHS Health Chat's with a wide range of experts and topics. Brandt CJ, Søgaard GI, Clemensen J, Søndergaard J, Nielsen JB. When the research involves the use of nonhumans, the ethical issues involved include; moral absolutism and relativism. Also, reasonable disagreements about research methods, procedures, and interpretations do not constitute research misconduct. Chapter Objectives. The following is a rough and general summary of some ethical principals that various codes address*: Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. However, judgments on whether such research is ethical in particular circumstances should be made in consultation with an Institutional Review Board. Protection against abuse of position arose from specialized knowledge Protection against unnecessary research Protection against unqualified researchers Protection of Anonymity Protection of confidential and proprietary information Protection against misleading presentations of data 1. Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action. Erroneous or fraudulent research often enters the public record without being detected for years. Maybe a physician thinks that it is perfectly appropriate to receive a $300 finder’s fee for referring patients into a clinical trial. Most societies also have legal rules that govern behavior, but ethical norms tend to be broader and more informal than laws. Indeed, in the last century, many social reformers have urged citizens to disobey laws they regarded as immoral or unjust laws. The ethical issues in psychology will help discover the various areas in the field that should be tread upon with sensitivity. If this is the case, then it may be appropriate to consider others ways of making the decision, such as going with a gut feeling or intuition, seeking guidance through prayer or meditation, or even flipping a coin. People are more likely to fund a research project if they can trust the quality and integrity of research. In these situations, there may be good arguments on both sides of the issue and different ethical principles may conflict. That's just the way it's done, one might argue. Consider the following case: Dr. T has just discovered a mathematical error in his paper that has been accepted for publication in a journal. Indeed, there has been considerable debate about the definition of "research misconduct" and many researchers and policy makers are not satisfied with the government's narrow definition that focuses on FFP. There are several reasons why it is important to adhere to ethical norms in research. NIEHS intramural scientists have defined descriptive terms of particular relevance to their own research, and have ranked those terms accordingly. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases. 2011 Mar;73(2):125-30. doi: 10.4103/0250-474x.91564. Even if misconduct is only a rare occurrence, it can still have a tremendous impact on science and society because it can compromise the integrity of research, erode the public’s trust in science, and waste time and resources. Ethical Guidelines for Research With Human Subjects . Legal and ethical issues form an important component of modern research, related to the subject and researcher. Research ethics provides guidelines for the responsible conduct of research. Tom has almost finished the experiment for Dr. Q. We discussed the do’s and don’ts of an ethical research. After considering these questions, a person facing an ethical dilemma may decide to ask more questions, gather more information, explore different options, or consider other ethical rules. Research Councils expect that those who receive funding demonstrate an awareness of the social and ethical implications of their research, and take account of public attitudes towards these issues. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective. This is the most common way of defining "ethics": norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance just your own career. Most researchers want to receive credit for their contributions and do not want to have their ideas stolen or disclosed prematurely. These meetings are listed in the NIEHS Events Calendar and are open to the general public. 2019 Jan 28;17(1):e88155. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000021653. Many bad decisions are made as a result of poor information. First, norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth, and avoidance of error. Given the importance of ethics for the conduct of research, it should come as no surprise that many different professional associations, government agencies, and universities have adopted specific codes, rules, and policies relating to research ethics. Many different disciplines, institutions, and professions have standards for behavior that suit their particular aims and goals. He or she should be able to articulate reasons for his or her conduct and should consider the following questions in order to explain how he or she arrived at his or her decision: . What are the major ethical issues in conducting research? Fouka, G., & Mantzorou, M. (2011). Qualitative researchers do not have clear standards governing their activities.
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